- | The difference (between character device and block device) comes
| whether the device accesses data randomly --- in otherwords,
| device can seek to one position from another.
- | The block is an abstraction of the filesystem --- filesystems can
| accessed only in multiples of a block.Although the physical device
| addressable at the sector level, the kernel performs all disk
| terms of blocks.
- | the kernel (as with hardware and the sector) needs the block to be
| of two.The kernel also requires that a block be no larger than the
- | The purpose of a buffer head is to describe this mapping between
| on-disk block and the physical in-memory buffer (which is a
sequence of bytes
| on a specific page).
- | the kernel does not issue block I/O requests to the disk in the
| are received or as soon as they are received.
- | Both the process scheduler and the I/O scheduler virtualize a
| among multiple objects.
- I/O schedulers perform two primary actions to minimize seeks: merging
and sorting. a) Merging is the coalescing of two or more requests
Consequently, merging requests reduces overhead and minimizes seeks.
| b) The entire request queue is kept sorted, sectorwise, so that all
| activity along the queue moves (as much as possible) sequentially over
| sectors of the hard disk.This is similar to the algorithm employed in
| elevators ------ try to move gracefully in a single direction.
#. Linus Elevator: The Linus Elevator I/O scheduler performs both front and back merging. #. The Deadline I/O scheduler: ensure that write requests do not starve read requests. #. The Anticipatory I/O scheduler aims to continue to provide excellent read latency, but also provide excellent global throughput. #. The Complete Fair Queuing (CFQ) I/O scheduler is an I/O scheduler designed for specialized workloads, but that in practice actually provides good performance across multiple workloads.It is now the default I/O scheduler in Linux(2.6). #. the Noop I/O Scheduler truly is a noop, merely maintaining the request queue in near-FIFO order, from which the block device driver can pluck requests.