Block I/O



  • | The difference (between character device and block device) comes
    down to
    | whether the device accesses data randomly --- in otherwords,
    whether the
    | device can seek to one position from another.
  • | The block is an abstraction of the filesystem --- filesystems can
    | accessed only in multiples of a block.Although the physical device
    | addressable at the sector level, the kernel performs all disk
    operations in
    | terms of blocks.
  • | the kernel (as with hardware and the sector) needs the block to be
    a power
    | of two.The kernel also requires that a block be no larger than the
    page size.
  • | The purpose of a buffer head is to describe this mapping between
    | on-disk block and the physical in-memory buffer (which is a
    sequence of bytes
    | on a specific page).
  • | the kernel does not issue block I/O requests to the disk in the
    order they
    | are received or as soon as they are received.
  • | Both the process scheduler and the I/O scheduler virtualize a
    | among multiple objects.
  • I/O schedulers perform two primary actions to minimize seeks: merging
    and sorting. a) Merging is the coalescing of two or more requests

into one.
Consequently, merging requests reduces overhead and minimizes seeks.

| b) The entire request queue is kept sorted, sectorwise, so that all
| activity along the queue moves (as much as possible) sequentially over
| sectors of the hard disk.This is similar to the algorithm employed in
| elevators ------ try to move gracefully in a single direction.

#. Linus Elevator: The Linus Elevator I/O scheduler performs both
   front and
   back merging.
#. The Deadline I/O scheduler: ensure that write requests do not
   read requests.
#. The Anticipatory I/O scheduler aims to continue to provide
   read latency, but also provide excellent global throughput.
#. The Complete Fair Queuing (CFQ) I/O scheduler is an I/O scheduler
   designed for specialized workloads, but that in practice actually
   good performance across multiple workloads.It is now the default
   I/O scheduler
   in Linux(2.6).
#. the Noop I/O Scheduler truly is a noop, merely maintaining the
   request queue in near-FIFO order, from which the block device
   driver can pluck